And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Peter denies Jesus three times before the cock crows twice: when a servant girl spots him; at the gateway; and when his Galilean accent is recognized. Jesus appears to Peter and affirms his position as leader.
The Council of Jerusalem — first meeting of the leaders of the Christian community — rules that Gentiles may enter the Christian religion. Clement I becomes the fourth Bishop of Rome, He is said to have written a letter — the Epistle to the Corinthians — to the church in Corinth, one of the earliest extant Christian documents.
The Roman Empire attains its greatest territorial extent under Emperor Trajan, and it is a time of prosperity throughout the empire, especially under the rule of the Five Good Emperors.
Ivereigh [is] uniquely fitted for the task by an Oxford University doctorate that was an investigation into the Church and politics in Argentina between and Sixtus III. On basic Church teachings, this pope was unwavering. However, its conclusion was followed by news that the Pope's financial adviser, Australian Cardinal George Pell, had been convicted of sexually abusing two year-old boys. Conference of Catholic Bishops at the Vatican.
The last 25 years of the century bring the end of the Pax Romana — the long period of relative peace experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD — with the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, and the accession of his megalomaniac son Commodus. The Han Dynasty in China extends its imperial influence into Central Asia, but by the second half of the century it is blighted by corruption. Hyginus , born in Athens, becomes the ninth Bishop of Rome. The Gnostics become an irritant to the Church.
Pius I , possibly a freed slave from Friuli, takes over the Church leadership. He champions the celebration of Easter on a Sunday and has to deal with Valentinians and Gnostics. A Syrian, Anicetus , becomes eleventh Bishop of Rome, the first leader of the Church to condemn heresy by banning Montanism. An extremely complex Gnostic theology founded by Valentinus in the 2nd century featuring God as the Demiurge and Aeons, heavenly archetypes.
Diverse religious movements generally sharing the belief that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect God, the Demiurge.
Founded by Montanus at Hierapolis and compared by some to modern Pentecostalism. It encouraged ecstatic prophesizing and believed that sinners could not be redeemed. It believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament. The nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different aspects of one God, as perceived by the believer, rather than three distinct persons in God Himself. A theology that insists that the Father, Son and Spirit simultaneously exist as three persons in one essence, each fully the same God.
Based on the teaching of Arius c. Further, Arius taught that the pre-incarnate Jesus was a divine being created by and possibly inferior to the Father at some point, before which the Son did not exist. This is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that Man has the will to choose good or evil without Divine help.
Nestorian thinkers believed that the two individual natures of Christ — the human and the divine — are separate and that there are two natures, the man Jesus and the divine Logos, united in Christ, rather than in hypostatic union, which denotes an actual concrete existence. Soter , born in Campania, succeeds Anicetus. He decrees that marriage is valid only when blessed by a priest and inaugurates Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
A Greek, Eleutherius , succeeds Soter. Montanists, Gnostics and Marcionites preach against the Catholic Church during his pontificate.
The weak and corrupt Zephyrinus fails to deal with heresies. The young Church begins to suffer severe persecution at the hands of Emperor Septimius Severus. Following the death of Commodus, the Roman Empire enters a century of crisis and civil war, while in Persia, the Parthian is succeeded by the Sassanid Empire. Callistus I : the first schism occurs when Hippolytus and a number of followers leave the Church in protest. Callistus is criticized for establishing the practice of the absolution of all repented sins.
Fabian succeeds Anterus. He baptizes the Roman emperor, Philip the Arab, improves Church organization and sends seven bishops as missionaries to Gaul. Controversy rages over whether those who have stopped practicing Christianity during the persecution should be accepted back into the Church after repentance. The new pope, Cornelius and Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, do not think they should be re-baptized. Novatian, in favour of re-baptism, proclaims himself antipope and is excommunicated.
There are at least 50, Christians in Rome at this time. As a result of renewed persecution, Cornelius is exiled and dies, he is succeeded by the Roman Lucius I. His assertion of the primacy of Rome makes enemies of the bishops. Sixtus II succeeds Stephen, allegedly beheaded by imperial soldiers during Mass.
Dionysius assumes the papal throne. Marcellinus St.
Marcellus I St. Eusebius or St. Miltiades St. Sylvester I St. Marcus St. Damasus I Opposed by Ursicinus, antipope St. Siricius St. Anastasius I St. Innocent I St. Zosimus St. Boniface I Opposed by Eulalius, antipope St. Celestine I St. Sixtus III St. Leo I the Great St. Hilarius St. Simplicius St.
Symmachus Opposed by Laurentius, antipope St. Hormisdas St. John I St. Boniface IV St. Martin I St. Eugene I St. Agatho St.
Leo II St. Gregory II St.
Gregory III St. The List of Popes.
In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. MLA citation. New York: Robert Appleton Company, Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat.